Lack of safety testing
Neither 4G or 5G have been tested for safety in credible real-life scenarios. Of major concern is that many lab studies which have been conducted in more benign environments still show harmful effects from this radiation.
Complexity of Wi-Fi signal is related to bioactivity
Most lab studies in the past consisted of a single carrier wave frequency. In 'real-life' Wi-Fi, a lower frequency signal that contains the information to be transmitted (e.g. speech, data, pictures etc) is superimposed on the pulsed carrier wave frequency (carrier waves are routinely used to amplify a transmission since the data wave often does not have enough power - this makes transmissions cheaper and more convenient since, for example, smaller antennae can be used). This omission is important since pulsed and modulated (i.e. information-carrying) EMFs are more biologically active than are non-pulsed (often called continuous wave) EMFs. 5G signals work at higher pulsed frequencies to carry more information and in that respect are more complex than lower frequency 3G or 4G signals.
Importance of signal variability for bioactivity
Of great concern is a recent (2019) study which used mobile phones (in talk mode) to compare the different parameters of the Wi-Fi signal on the degree of DNA fragmentation (damage) in fruit fly egg formation (Panagopoulos, 2019). The authors state: "Of all the parameters tested, such as intensity, frequency, exposure duration, polarization, pulsing, modulation, the crucial parameter for the most intense biological activity was the extreme variability of the signal, mainly due to the large unpredicatble intensity changes that occur during mobile phone calls". "During any conversation with mobile phones there are constant unpredictable changes related to the varying information transmitted at each moment, in addition there are continuous sudden unexpected changes in intensity due to changes in location, number of subscribers using the network at any moment, atmospheric conductivity changes etc, which may exceed 100% of average intensity. Thus, real digital telecomunication EMFs change constantly and unpredictably being impossible to simulate them by EMFs of fixed parameters". The authors also state that "In fact, with every new generation of telecommunication devices (e.g. 3rd, 4th, 5th generation mobile phones or base antennas) the amount of information transmitted each moment (speech, text, images, video, internet etc) is increased, resulting in higher variability and complexity of the signals with the living cells/organisms even more unable to adapt..."
Proposed mechanisms of action
Studies have shown that 5G frequencies activate voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and also the voltage-gated potassium channels, suggesting that it works via the voltage sensor, as do other EMFs (Alekseev SI, Ziskin MC., 1999, Bioelectromagnetics, 20:24-33). EMFs act on the voltage sensor of the VGCCs, opening calcium channels and allowing excess calcium ions to flow into the cell. Ion channel gating in general is very sensitive to variability in membrane voltage, such that the current safety guidelines allow us to be exposed to EMFs that are in excess by a factor of 7.2 million. Since calcium is an important cellular signal, massive influx of calcium (and/or potassium ions) into the cells has been causally linked to the majority of harmful downstream biological effects, as described by Prof. Martin Pall (see: 'Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health' below).
Furthermore, a recent publication (Betzalel et al., Environmental Research, 2018, 163:208) demonstrated that the coiled portion of the sweat duct in upper skin layer can act as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band. The author’s state: “There is enough evidence to suggest that the combination of the helical sweat duct and wavelengths approaching the dimensions of skin layers could lead to non-thermal biological effects. Such fears should be investigated and these concerns should also affect the definition of standards for the application of 5G communications”. In addition to the above, the effects of 5G will have an especially strong impact on organisms with much higher surface area to volume ratios such as insects and other arthropods, birds, small mammals and Amphibia. Also included are plants and even large trees, since leaves have high surface area to volume ratios and have reproductive organs that are highly exposed.
To summarise, 5G is predicted to be particularly dangerous for each of five different reasons:
1. The extraordinarily high numbers of antennae that are planned.
2. The very high energy outputs which will be used to ensure penetration.
3. High pulsation levels and especially increased complexity and variability of the signal.
4. Layering of 5G on 2G, 3G and 4G frequencies, resulting in increased complexity and variability of the signal.
5. The enhanced effect of 5G frequencies on the voltage sensor of Ca2+ and K+ (potassium) channels, and potentially other voltage-gated ion channels into the cell, such as sodium.
The telecommunications industry argues that 5G radiation will be mostly absorbed in the outer 1 or 2 mm of the body, therefore we don’t have to worry about any effects. However, the above reasons make any such conclusions extremely suspect.
Summarised articles by Prof. Martin Pall:
5G EMF Hazards
Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health